11. Begin your sentence with a gerund.
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and is used in the same ways a noun is used.
Tip: A noun that begins a sentence is usually the subject; therefore, our sentence pattern is asking you to use a gerund as the subject of the sentence.
Ex. Exercising offers many health benefits.
Reading can improve your vocabulary.
***Be careful! Gerunds look like present participles. A gerund will always be used as a noun. A participle will always be used as an adjective. Also, notice the difference in punctuation.
12. Write a loose (cumulative) sentence.
A loose or cumulative sentence is one in which the independent clause comes first, followed by phrases or by dependent clauses.
A loose sentence still makes sense if brought to a close before the period.
Ex. “One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture—a pale blue eye, with a film over it.”
from Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart”
“Arnie hollered, arguing that some people were meant to work and others to come up with brilliant ideas.”
from Soto’s “Born Worker”
13. Write a periodic sentence.
A periodic sentence has its main clause at the end of the sentence with additional phrases or dependent clauses leading up to the point.
A periodic sentence does not make sense until the end.
Ex. “After ten years on your planet, I’ve learned to smell trouble.”
from Lipsyte’s “Future Tense”
“In the brightness of the wintry sun next morning as it streamed over the breakfast table, he laughed at his fears.”
from Jacobs’s “The Monkey’s Paw”